logoliggew bold


                                                                   Networking for Communications Challenged Communities:

                                                                   Architecture, Test Beds and Innovative Alliances

Standards contributions


During the development of the N4C test bed infrastructure and applications, N4C partners have investigated and researched various technical aspects of DTN protocols and documented this work through the publication of Internet Drafts for consideration and review by the DTN research group and the wider IETF/IRTF community.

Contributions were made to the following areas:

  • Naming of DTN Endpoints through the dtn: URI scheme – documents

  • The DTN URI Scheme [URIscheme]

  • Adding the ‘find’ Operation to the dtn: URI Scheme [URIfind]

  • Endpoint Discovery Protocol for DTN

  • The Delay Tolerant Networking Endpoint Discovery Protocol [EndPoint]

  • Bundle Security Protocol [BSP]

  • Several updates have been made to this document to meet review comments both from within the DTNRG and from IESG and IRSG reviewers prior to its being accepted for publication as an Experimental RFC

  • PRoPHET Routing Protocol [PRoPHET]

  • Extensive experimental, simulation and theoretical work has been done on the PRoPHET Routing Protocol specification. There have been a number of updates to the Internet Draft that specifies the protocol. These versions have been presented to the DTNRG and review comments have been received from various member of the group. The document is expected to be submitted for formal approval very shortly.

  • Self-Defining Numeric Values [SDNV]

  • The Licklider Transmission Protocol [LTP], [LTPcl]

  • DTN Management mechanisms. A sub-group of the DTNRG has been working on this topic intermittently during the period of N4C. Much of this work is still at a very experimental stage and it is not implemented in the DTN2 reference implementation as yet. N4C staff have been involved in this group.

  • Extending the bundle protocol to handle cases where nodes have no good clock [AltTime]

  • Extending the bundle protocol to handle information-centric networking [InfCenNet], [QueryBlk]

The Internet-draft documents associated with a number of these areas have or are expected to become formally reviewed and approved RFCs in the near future. (There are six DTNRG documents currently in the RFC Editor’s publication queue at the time of writing. See [RFCQueue].)

N4C staff has provided considerable support and expertise in progressing these and other DTN RG documents through the formal processes necessary for publication as RFCs during the course of N4C. In addition to providing a co-chair for DTNRG, Elwyn Davies (Folly) has acted as ‘document shepherd’ for the current set of DTRNG documents in the RFC editor queue.


Farrell, S, McMahon, A., and Ott, J,. “Handling Issues with Real Time in the Bundle Protocol”, draft-farrell-dtnrg-alt-time-00, November 2009.


Symington, S., Farrell, S., Weiss, H., and Lovell, P., “Bundle Security Protocol Specification”, draft-irtf-dtnrg-bundle-security-15, February 2010.


Bytewalla Project Team, “Bytewalla: Delay Tolerant Network on Android Mobile Phones”, Bytewalla project web site, January 2010


Burleigh, S., “Compressed Bundle Header Encoding (CBHE)”, draft-irtf-dtnrg-cbhe-04, February 2010.


Clark, G., Campbell, G., Kruse, H. and Ostermann, S., “DING Protocol -- A Protocol For Network Management”, draft-irtf-dtnrg-ding-network-management-02, February 2010.


Demmer, M., et al, “DTN2 Bundle Protocol Agent Reference Implementation”, Available from Sourceforge DTN Repository or N4C Code Repository.


Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) Delay- and Disruption-Tolerant Research Group Web Site and Wiki.


Davies, E, et al, “DTN - The State f the Art”, N4C Deliverable D2.1, April 2009,


Ivancic, W., “Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking - Network Management Requirements”, draft-ivancic-dtnrg-network-management-reqs-00, June 2009.


McMahon, A and Fall, K,, “The Delay Tolerant Networking Endpoint Discovery Protocol”, draft-mcmahon-dtnrg-dtn-edp-00, February 2010.


Davies, E, and Doria, A., “Functional Specification for DTN Infrastructure Software”, N4C Deliverable D2.2, April 2010


Kutscher, D., and Farrell, S., “Towards an Information-Centric Internet with more Things”, Submissions for IAB SmartObjects Workshop, February 2011.


Farrell, S., et al, “Licklider Transmission Protocol – Specification”, RFC 5326, September 2008.


Burleigh, S., “Delay-Tolerant Networking LTP Convergence Layer (LTPCL) Adapter”, draft-burleigh-dtnrg-ltpcl-03, February 2011.


Davies, E, et al, “N4C System Architecture”, N4C Deliverable D2.1, April 2009 (Updated May 2011 - N4C Deliverable D2.1- updated).


Lindgren, A., Doria, A., Davies, E., and Grasic, S., “Probabilistic Routing Protocol for Intermittently Connected Networks”, draft-irtf-dtnrg-prophet-09, April 2011.


Farrell, S., Lynch, A., Kutscher, D., and Lindgren, A., "Bundle Protocol Query Extension Block", draft-farrell-dtnrg-bpq-00, November 2010.


Scott, K. and Burleigh., S., “Bundle Protocol Specification”, RFC 5050, November 2007.


Burleigh, S., Ramadas, M., and Farrell, S. , “Licklider Transmission Protocol - Motivation”, RFC 5325, September 2008.


Ramadas, M., Burleigh, S., and Farrell, S., “Licklider Transmission Protocol - Specification”, RFC 5326, September 2008.


Farrell, S., Ramadas, M., and Burleigh, S., “Licklider Transmission Protocol - Security Extensions”, RFC 5327, September 2008.


RFC Editor Publication queue


Eddy, W. and Davies, E., “Using Self-Delimiting Numeric Values in Protocols”, draft-irtf-dtnrg-sdnv-09, February 2011.


Davies, E. and Doria, A., “Adding the “find” Operation to the dtn: URI Scheme”,
draft-davies-dtnrg-uri-find-01, October 2009.


Fall, K., Burleigh, S., Doria, A., and Ott, J., “The DTN URI Scheme”,
draft-irtf-dtnrg-dtn-uri-scheme-00, March 2009.